Nanofluidic

 

Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer (typically 1-100 nm) characteristic dimensions (1 nm = 10-9 m). Fluids confined in these structures exhibit physical behaviors not observed in larger structures, such as those of micrometer dimensions and above, because the characteristic physical scaling lengths of the fluid, (e.g. Debye length, hydrodynamic radius) very closely coincide with the dimensions of the nanostructure itself. When structures approach the size regime corresponding to molecular scaling lengths, new physical constraints are placed on the behavior of the fluid. For example, these physical constraints induce regions of the fluid to exhibit new properties not observed in bulk, e.g. Vastly increased viscosity near the pore wall; they may effect changes in thermodynamic properties and may also alter the chemical reactivity of species at the fluid-solid interface. A particularly relevant and useful example is displayed by electrolyte solutions confined in nanopores that contain surface charges, i.e. At electrified interfaces, as shown in the nanocapillary array membrane (NCAM) in the accompanying figure.

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Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer (typically 1-100 nm) characteristic dimensions (1 nm = 10-9 m). Fluids confined in these structures exhibit physical behaviors not observed in larger structures, such as those of micrometer dimensions and above, because the characteristic physical scaling lengths of the fluid, (e.g. Debye length, hydrodynamic radius) very closely coincide with the dimensions of the nanostructure itself. When structures approach the size regime corresponding to molecular scaling lengths, new physical constraints are placed on the behavior of the fluid. For example, these physical constraints induce regions of the fluid to exhibit new properties not observed in bulk, e.g. Vastly increased viscosity near the pore wall; they may effect changes in thermodynamic properties and may also alter the chemical reactivity of species at the fluid-solid interface. A particularly relevant and useful example is displayed by electrolyte solutions confined in nanopores that contain surface charges, i.e. At electrified interfaces, as shown in the nanocapillary array membrane (NCAM) in the accompanying figure.

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Nanotechnology considers fluidics as one of its instruments. In this domain, more delicate effects come into play, such as fluid-solid or fluid-fluid interface effects."  Another description taken from the First International Nanofluidics Workshop's Brochure, in Boekelo, The Netherlands, April 18 - 20, 2005 succintly states "This workshop aims at stimulating discussion on both theory and applications of nanofluidics, which we define as the study and application of fluid flow in and around nanosize objects."

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The technology of controlling fluids in structures whose features are in the 1-100 nm range.

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Study and development of fluid flow in and through engineered nanostructures

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The control of nanoscale amounts of fluids.

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Controlling nano-scale amounts of fluids

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Controlling nanoscale amounts of fluids.

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Guiding of ultra-small amounts of liquids for chemical analysis. Chemical reactions or separation techniques in a lab of very small dimensions, which is referred to as a "lab on a chip device".

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Controlling nano-scale amounts of fluids

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Controlling nanoscale amounts of fluids.

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