Nanotechnology

 

Nanotechnologies are the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometre scale.

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Nanotechnology, which is sometimes shortened to "Nanotech", refers to a field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures 100 nanometers or smaller, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.

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Technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular range of approximately 1-100 nanometers to create and use structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties.

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The interactions of cellular and molecular components and engineered materials-typically clusters of atoms, molecules, and molecular fragments-at the most elemental level of biology. Such nanoscale objects-typically, though not exclusively, with dimensions smaller than 100 nanometers-can be useful by themselves or as part of larger devices containing multiple nanoscale objects.

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Nanotechnology is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Eight to ten atoms span one nanometer (nm). The human hair is approximately 70,000 to 80,000 nm thick. Nanotechnology should really be called "nanotechnologies": There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures.The United States' National Nanotechnology Initiative website defines it as follows: "Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications." Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Nanoscience is the world of atoms, molecules, macromolecules, quantum dots, and macromolecular assemblies, and is dominated by surface effects such as Van der Waals force attraction, hydrogen bonding, electronic charge, ionic bonding, covalent bonding, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and quantum mechanical tunneling, to the virtual exclusion of macro-scale effects such as turbulence and inertia. For example, the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume opens new possibilities in surface-based science, such as catalysis. The ongoing quest for miniaturization has resulted in tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM) and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow us to deliberately manipulate and manufacture nanostructures. Engineered nanomaterials, either by way of a top-down approach (a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern) or a bottom-up approach (larger structures are built or grown atom by atom or molecule by molecule), go beyond just a further step in miniaturization. They have broken a size barrier below which quantization of energy for the electrons in solids becomes relevant. The so-called "quantum size effect" describes the physics of electron properties in solids with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, it becomes dominant when the nanometer size range is reached. Materials reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very different properties compared to what they show on a macroscale. For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); inert materials become catalysts (platinum); stable materials turn combustible (aluminum); solids turn into liquids at room temperature (gold); insulators become conductors (silicon). A second important aspect of the nanoscale is that the smaller a nanoparticle gets, the larger its relative surface area becomes. Its electronic structure changes dramatically, too. Both effects lead to greatly improved catalytic activity but can also lead to aggressive chemical reactivity. The fascination with nanotechnology stems from these unique quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale, making possible novel applications and interesting materials.

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Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. In some particular cases, the critical length scale for novel properties and phenomena may be under 1 nm (e.g., manipulation of atoms at ~0.1 nm) or be larger than 100 nm (e.g., nanoparticle reinforced polymers have the unique feature at ~ 200-300 nm as a function of the local bridges or bonds between the nano particles and the polymer).

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1. The design, characterization, production and application of materials, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale.

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A field of science whose goal is to control individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit. Current manufacturing processes use lithography to imprint circuits on semiconductor materials. While lithography has improved dramatically over the last two decades -- to the point where some manufacturing plants can produce circuits smaller than one micron (1,000 nanometers) -- it still deals with aggregates of millions of atoms. It is widely believed that lithography is quickly approaching its physical limits. To continue reducing the size of semiconductors, new technologies that juggle individual atoms will be necessary. This is the realm of nanotechnology.Although research in this field dates back to Richard P. Feynman's classic talk in 1959, the term nanotechnology was first coined by K. Eric Drexler in 1986 in the book Engines of Creation.In the popular press, the term nanotechnology is sometimes used to refer to any sub-micron process, including lithography. Because of this, many scientists are beginning to use the term molecular nanotechnology when talking about true nanotechnology at the molecular level.

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Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing , is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter. The Institute of Nanotechnology in the U.K. expresses it as "science and technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm play a critical role." Nanotechnology is often discussed together with micro-electromechanical systems ( MEMS ), a subject that usually includes nanotechnology but may also include technologies higher than the molecular level.

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Areas of technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1nm to 100nm play a critical role

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The art of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale especially to build microscopic devices (as robots)

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The study of systems and devices on the molecular scale. Nanotechnology problems are very amenable to molecular modeling, and a huge growth area in global r&d.

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In recent general usage, any technology related to features of nanometer scale: thin films, fine particles, chemical synthesis, advanced microlithography, and so forth. As introduced by the author, a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis; this can be termed molecular nanotechnology.

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Technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build structures to complex, atomic specifications.

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As used by

See Molecular nanotechnology.

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A manufacturing technology able to inexpensively fabricate most structures consistent with natural law, and to do so with molecular precision. [FS]

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Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer (1 to 100+ nm) length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.

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The art of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale especially to build microscopic devices.

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Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.

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Areas of technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1nm to 100nm play a critical role.

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Nanotechnologies are the design, characterisation, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometre scale.

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Areas of technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1nm to 100nm play a critical role.

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Innovative motivator of this century - the biggest secret in the smallest possible dimension. Nanotechnology ("nano" - Greek: dwarf) is a comparatively young technology. It deals itself with the research, processing and production of items as well as structures that are smaller than 100 Nanometers (nm) in at least one dimension. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter (10-9 m) and around 50000 times finer than the average human hair. The small size of the nano particles or nano structures is one of the main reasons for their particular properties. The relative surface increases as the particle size decreases. For this reason, nano structures have an extremely large surface that considerably influences the behavior. roadsolver Nano structures therefore lie in the dimension range in which the surface properties play an increasingly greater role in view of the volume properties of the materials, and quantum physical effects must also be taken more into consideration. However, the mechanical, optical, magnetic, electrical and chemical properties of these tiny structures do not just depend on the nature of the basic material. Instead, they depend in a particular way on the size, shape and the nature in which these small structures are generated and integrated into materials.

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Technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular range of approximately 1-100 nanometers to create and use structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties.

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Technology development at the atomic and molecular range (1 nm to 100 nm) to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties because of their small size

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Areas of technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1nm to 100nm play a critical role.

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The design, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the nanometer scale (atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scale) that produces structures, devices, and systems with at least one novel/superior characteristic or property.

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The application of nanoscience in order to control processes on the nanometer scale, i.e. Between 0.1 nm and 100 nm.

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The creation and use of objects at the nanoscale, up to 100 nanometers in size.

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Technology on the nanometer scale. The original definition is technology that is built from single atoms and which depends on individual atoms for function. An example is an enzyme. If you mutate the enzyme's gene, the modified enzyme may or may not function. In contrast, if you remove a few atoms from a hammer, it still will work just as well. This is an important distinction that has generally been lost as the hype about nanotechnology and it is used as a buzz word for 'small' instead of a distinctly different technology. Fortunately real nanotechnologies are in the works.

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Refer to this page:

Molecular Nanotechnology

Nanoelectronic

Gray Goo Or Grey Goo

Guy Fawkes Scenario

Nanomedicine

Computational Nanotechnology

Golden Goo

Molecule

Nanobiotechnology

Nanofacture

NE3LS

Bionanotechnology

Chemical nanotechnology

Genie

Nanarchist

Red Goo

Wet Nanotechnology

Blue Goo

Enabling Science and Technologies

Khaki Goo

Molecular Assembler

Molecular Recognition

Nanobot Or Nanite

POSS Nanotechnology

Protein Design Or Protein Engineering

Singularity

Atomistic Simulation

Biomolecular Nanotechnology

Bottom-Up

Femtotechnology

Green Nanotechnology

Membrane

Nanotech

Nanotribology

Nature Nanotechnology

Zettatechnology

Accelrys

Automated Manufacturing

Biomimetic

Bio-nano generator

Carbon Nanotube

Diamondoid

DNA Nanotechnology

Ecophagy

GNR Technologies

Mataglap

Molecular Machine

Morphological Freedom

Nanoassembler

Nanoeconomics

Nanoengineering

Nanomaterial

Nanomechanics

Nanonephrology

Nanosocialism

Nanotube

NRAM

Pico Technology

Picotechnology

Post Monetary Economy

Potential risks of nanotechnology

Substrate

Surface Science

Synthetic molecular motor

Top-Down Molding

Utility Fog

Ab Initio

Carbon nanobud

Cleanroom

Computer-Aided Nanodesign

Computer-Aided Nanotechnology

Dip-Pen Nanolithography

Disassembler

Engines of Creation

Exponential general-purpose molecular manufacturing

Implications of Nanotechnology

Molecular Manufacturing

Molecular Technology

Nanoanalytics

Nanocomputer

Nanocosmetic

NanoElectroMechanical System

Nanofilter

Nanofluidic

NanoInk

Nanomachine

Nanomanufacturing

Nanomaterials by Design

Nanomechatronics

Nanooze

Nanoparticle

Nanopharmaceutical

Nanorobotic

Nanorod

Nanoscale

Nanoscience

Nanostructured material

Nanostructured

Nanosystem

Nanotechism

Nanotechnology Consortium

Nanoturisation

Nanoweaponry

Nanowetting

NBIC

Proximal probes

Quantum Physics

Rational Nanotechnology Design

Self-Assembly

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