Ground state


The lowest-energy state of a system. The electronic ground state of a system cannot reduce its energy by an electronic transition, but may contain vibrational energy (kinetic and potential energy associated with the motions and positions of its atoms); extended systems at ordinary temperatures are always vibrationally excited, and so "ground state" is often taken to mean "electronic ground state."






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Excited states

Activation energy


Numerical modeling

Quantum Wire


Related Terms:


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