devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in
micrometers. In the research labs since the 1980s, MEMS devices began to
materialize as commercial products in the mid-1990s. They are used to make
chemical and vibration sensors, light reflectors and switches as well as
accelerometers for airbags, vehicle control, pacemakers and games. The technology is also used to make inkjet print
heads, microactuators for read/write heads and all-optical switches that reflect light beams to the
appropriate output port.