A quantum of acoustic energy, analogous to the quantum of electromagnetic radiation, the photon. Thermal excitations in a crystal or in an elastic continuum can be described as a population of phonons (analogous to blackbody electromagnetic radiation). In highly inhomogeneous solids, a description in terms of phonons breaks down and localized vibrational modes become important.












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Raman spectroscopy

Electron energy loss spectroscopy

Quantum Mechanical Tunneling


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