lithography is a photolithography resolution enhancement technique that replaces
the usual air gap between the final lens and the wafer surface with a liquid
medium that has a refractive index greater than one. The resolution is increased by a factor equal to the
refractive index of the liquid. Current immersion lithography tools use highly purified water for
this liquid, achieving feature sizes below 37 nanometers.
ASML Holding, Nikon and Canon are currently the only manufacturers of
immersion lithography systems.
An enhancement is hydrolith immersion technology
which allows a "measure dry, expose wet" process.