a German acronym for ?Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung,"
in English (X-ray) Lithography, Electroplating, and Molding, is a process in microtechnology that was developed in the early 1980s 
by a team under the leadership of Erwin Willy Becker and Wolfgang Ehrfeld at the Institute for Nuclear Process Engineering (Institut für Kernverfahrenstechnik IKVT)
 at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center .
LIGA was one of the first major techniques to allow on-demand manufacturing of high-aspect-ratio structures
(structures that are much taller than wide) with lateral precision below one micrometre. This capability is important in the fabrication of MEMS devices. Because of the high
collimation of X-rays needed, the source must be synchrotron light.