A crystal consists of a regular array of atoms, and the simplest model of a crystal surface would be generated by simply discarding all atoms to one side of a surface without changing the positions of the rest. In reality, however, the positions of the remaining atoms do change. A pattern of displacements that lowers the symmetry of the surface (relative to the ideally terminated crystal) is termed a surface reconstruction; some reconstructions alter the pattern of bonds.



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Bare nanodiamond

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Kelvin probe force microscope


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